Dan it-terminu jintuża fil-leġiżlazzjoni bażika tal-OSH: 'Chemical agent`1 means any chemical element or compound, on its own or admixed, as it occurs in the natural state or as produced, used or released, including release as waste, by any work activity, whether or not produced intentionally and whether or not placed on the market;
It-terminu duħħan japplika b’mod partikolari għal partikoli solidi fini bħala sospensjoni fl-arja, spiss iġġenerati minn volatilizzazzjoni minn sustanzi mdewba (eż. dħaħen mill_x0002_iwweldjar jew mill-gomma).
Gas means a substance which: (i) at 50 °C has a vapour pressure greater than 300 kPa (absolute); or (ii) is completely gaseous at 20 °C at a standard pressure of 101,3 kPa;
Substances and air contaminants may be generated from processes at work places, e.g. combustion processes where fumes, exhausts and smoke is emitted and, grinding and cutting processes emitting dust. These generated substances and air contaminants may be dangerous.
A substance which fulfils the criteria relating to physical hazards, health hazards or environmental hazards, laid down in Parts 2 to 5 of Annex I of the CLP Regulation, and classified in relation to the respective hazard classes provided for in that Annex.
The classification of dangerous substances is based on categories defined in the CLP Directive. These categories include physical hazards (explosive, flammable, instable etc.) health hazards (all aspects of short and long term harm to health) and environmental hazards (aquatic environment etc.)
Often hazardous substances and dangerous substances are used like synonyms. There is no clear distinction, language preferences play a role.
Kontaminanti ġġenerati minn proċess jistgħu jkunu ġġenerati bħala emissjonijiet minn kwalunkwe tip ta’ proċess li jwassal għal espożizzjoni fuq il-postijiet tax_x0002_xogħol, eż. proċessi ta’ kombustjoni, proċessi li fiżikament jew kimikament jiddegradaw jew b’xi mod ieħor jimmodifikaw il-materjal tal-bidu.
Isem użat b'mod komuni għal elementi, komposti u taħlitiet kimiċi ta’ komposti u elementi.
Kompost kimiku li jikkonsisti minn żewġ elementi kimiċi jew aktar.
Liquid means a substance or mixture which:
(i) at 50 °C has a vapour pressure of not more than 300 kPa
(ii) is not completely gaseous at 20 °C and at a standard
pressure of 101,3 kPa; and
(iii) which has a melting point or initial melting point of 20
°C or less at a standard pressure of 101,3 kPa;
An object which during production is given a special shape, surface or design which determines its function to a greater degree than does its chemical composition Eżempji tipiċi huma tajers, għamara tal-plastik, apparat elettroniku, tessuti bbażati fuq fibri kimiċi, kejbils
Prodott li jikkonsisti minn sustanza jew kompost kimiku wieħed jew aktar. Il-funzjoni tiegħu hija fil-biċċa l-kbira determinata mill-kompożizzjoni kimika tiegħu. Eżempji tipiċi huma kolla, żebgħat, linka, diżinfettanti, bijoċidi, plastifikanti, silikon, logħob tan-nar, żjut lubrikanti, eċċ.
Solid means a substance or mixture which does not
meet the definitions of liquid or gas (CLP)
Solidu huwa stat ta’ materja. Huwa kkaratterizzat minn
riġidità strutturali u reżistenza għal bidliet fil-forma jew
‘Substance’ means a chemical element and its compounds in the natural state or obtained by any manufacturing process, including any additive necessary to preserve its stability and any impurity deriving from the process used, but excluding any solvent which may be separated without affecting the stability of the substance or changing its composition; Element kimiku jew kompost ta’ żewġ elementi kimiċi jew aktar.
A substance which fulfils the criteria relating to physical hazards, health hazards or environmental hazards, laid down in Parts 2 to 5 of Annex I of the CLP Regulation, and classified in relation to the respective hazard classes provided for in that Annex. Il-klassifikazzjoni ta’ sustanzi ta’ ħsara hija bbażata fuq kategoriji definiti fid-Direttiva CLP. Dawn il-kategoriji jinkludu perikli fiżiċi (splussivi, fjammabbli, instabbli, eċċ.) perikli għas-saħħa (l-aspetti kollha ta’ ħsara għas-saħħa fuq terminu qasir u fit-tul) u perikli ambjentali (ambjent akwatiku eċċ.) Spiss sustanzi perikolużi u sustanzi ta’ ħsara jintużaw bħal sinonimi. Ma hemm l-ebda distinzjoni ċara, il-preferenzi tal-lingwa għandhom rwol.
‘Mixture’ means a mixture or solution composed of two or more substances.
Solid particles of a substance or mixture suspended in a gas (usually air).
Health and Safety
Espożizzjoni tiddeskrivi li sustanza hija preżenti fl-ambjent ta’ ħaddiem u tista’ jew tinġibed man-nifs jew tittieħed b’kuntatt mal-ġilda (anke l-għajnejn, il-widnejn) jew permezz ta’ inġestjoni. Contact of an organism with a chemical, radiological, or physical agent. Exposure is quantified as the amount of the agent available at the exchange boundaries of the organism (e.g. skin, lungs, gut) and available for absorption.
CLP jagħmel differenza bejn gassijiet fjammabbli, likwidi u solidi aerosols u japplika kriterji differenti. Definizzjoni ssimplifikata hija li s-sustanzi kollha li jistgħu jieħdu n-nar u jaqbdu jew jappoġġjaw t-tkebbis u l-ħruq ta’ materjali oħra huma klassifikati bħala fjammabbli.
A hazard is anything that has the potential to cause harm. Hazards can affect people, property, processes; they can cause accidents and ill-heath, loss of output, damage to machinery, etc.
It-teħid tan-nifs għal ġol- pajpijiet tan-nifs u l-pulmuni
Il-konsum ta’ ikel, mediċina, likwidi, jew sustanzi oħra fil_x0002_ġisem mill-ħalq.
Skin irritation means the production of reversible damage to the skin following the application of a test substance for up to 4 hours
Carcinogen means a substance or a mixture of substances which induce cancer or increase its incidence.
A mutation means a permanent change in the amount or structure of the genetic material in a cell. The term ‘mutation’ applies both to heritable genetic changes that may be manifested at the phenotypic level and to the underlying DNA modifications when known (including specific base pair changes and chromosomal translocations).
Occupational risk refers to the likelihood and the severity of an injury or an illness occurring as a result of exposure to a hazard.
Respiratory sensitiser means a substance that will lead to hypersensitivity of the airways following inhalation of the substance.
Respiratory sensitiser means a substance that will lead to hypersensitivity of the airways following inhalation of the substance. Skin sensitiser means a substance that will lead to an allergic response following skin contact
An explosive substance or mixture is a solid or liquid substance or mixture of substances which is in itself capable by chemical reaction of producing gas at such a temperature and pressure and at such a speed as to cause damage to the surroundings.
Reproductive toxicity includes adverse effects on sexual function and fertility in adult males and females, as well as developmental toxicity in the offspring.
Minn perspettiva legali, kimika (sustanza, taħlita) għandha tossiċità akuta jekk tissodisfa dawn il-kriterji CLP: Acute toxicity means those adverse effects occurring following oral or dermal administration of a single dose of a substance or a mixture, or multiple doses given within 24 hours, or an inhalation exposure of 4 hours. CLP jagħmel differenza bejn tossiċità orali, dermali u inalatorja.
L-espożizzjoni għal sustanzi perikolużi jista’ jwassal għal danni speċifiċi għall-organi. CLP jagħmel differenza bejn danni speċifiċi għall-organi minħabba espożizzjoni unika jew espożizzjonijiet repetuti.
see: Chemical Agents Directive
Directive 2004/37/EC (the Carcinogens and Mutagens Directive, CMD)
of 29 April 2004 on the protection of workers from the risks related to exposure to carcinogens or mutagens at work
Directive 98/24/EC (the Chemical Agents Directive, CAD)
of 7 April 1998 on the protection of the health and safety of workers from the risks related to chemical agents at work (fourteenth individual Directive within the meaning of Article 16(1) of Directive 89/391/EEC)
Regulation (EC) No 1272/2008 (CLP Regulation)
of the European Parliament and of the Council of 16 December 2008 on classification, labelling and packaging of substances and mixtures, amending and repealing Directives 67/548/EEC and 1999/45/EC, and amending Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006
see Carcinogens and Mutagens Directive
see: Globally Harmonised System
Directive 2009/161/EU - indicative occupational exposure limit values
see: Occupational Exposure Limit
see: Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals
Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006 (REACH Regulation)
of 18 December 2006 concerning the Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH) and establishing a European Chemicals Agency
Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006 - REACH
see: Safety Data Sheet
Measures and Procedures
All measures that aim at the reduction of the generation of dangerous substances and the exposure risk.
Zwrot określający zagrożenie
(a) equipment designed and manufactured to be worn or
held by a person for protection against one or more risks to
that person's health or safety;
(b) interchangeable components for equipment referred to in
point (a) which are essential for its protective function;
(c) connexion systems for equipment referred to in point (a)
that are not held or worn by a person, that are designed to
connect that equipment to an external device or to a reliable
anchorage point, that are not designed to be permanently
fixed and that do not require fastening works before use;
Measurement of the concentration of air contaminants at the workplace. Measurements may be used for measuring workers´ exposure or to study the concentration of air contaminants at the workplace, e.g. leakages, identification of sources emitting air contaminants and evaluation of the effectiveness of local exhausts as a basis for decisions about what measures should be taken. Depending on which substance is to be measured, different kinds of measuring equipment are available.
Il-miżuri kollha li għandhom l-għan li jnaqqsu l-espożizzjoni għal sustanzi perikolużi b’mezzi organizzattivi, (eż tnaqqis fin-numru ta’ ħaddiema f’żoni esposti)
Il-miżuri kollha li għandhom l-għan li jnaqqsu l-espożizzjoni għal sustanzi perikolużi bl-użu ta’ apparat tekniku
Hazard pictogram means a graphical composition that includes a symbol plus other graphic elements, such as a border, background pattern or colour that is intended to convey specific information on the hazard concerned;
The aim of occupational risk assessment is to protect workers’ health and safety. Risk assessment includes identifying risks, evaluating how severe the risk is and deciding if there is a need to take action to reduce the risk.
Under health and safety laws, all employers must carry out regular risk assessment.
SDS provide information about the properties of a chemical product, its hazards, and instructions for handling, disposal and transport, first-aid, fire-fighting and safety measures to reduce exposure. The information in SDS is needed to understand the risks and know how to handle the chemical product safely.
Is-sostituzzjoni ta’ sustanza perikoluża jew prodott kimiku jew sustanzi perikolużi ġġenerati minn proċess b’oħrajn inqas perikolużi