About 320,000 workers worldwide die every year of communicable diseases, some 5,000 in the European Union. In the last decade, media coverage has raised public awareness of biological hazards, such as anthrax at work due to bioterrorist activities, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and the threat of avian flu. But biological agents are ubiquitous and, in many workplaces, workers face considerably harmful biological risks. The Community strategy 2002-06 called on the Agency to 'set up a risk observatory' to 'anticipate new and emerging risks'. This report sets out to present the results of the forecast on emerging OSH biological risks, which is the second forecast of emerging risks carried out in this context.