Chemical Terms

Agente chimico

Questo termine è utilizzato nella normativa di base in
materia di SSL:
Chemical Agents Directive
Council Directive 98/24/EC of  “'Chemical agent` means any chemical element or compound, on its own or admixed, as it occurs in the natural state or as produced, used or released, including release as waste, by any work activity, whether or not produced intentionally and whether or not placed on the market;"

Articolo chimico

Un oggetto a cui durante la produzione sono dati una forma, una superficie o un disegno particolari che ne determinano la funzione in misura maggiore della sua composizione chimica.Esempi tipici sono pneumatici, arredi in plastica, dispositivi elettronici, tessuti prodotti con fibre chimiche, cavi.

Chemical product

A product consisting of one or more chemical substances or compounds. Its function is to a great degree determined by its chemical composition.

Typical example are glues, paints, inks, disinfectants, biocides, plasticizers, silicon, fireworks, lubricating oils etc.


Composto chimico formato da due o più elementi chimici.


Il termine “fumi” si riferisce in particolare a particelle
solide fini in sospensione nell’aria, spesso prodotte dalla
volatilizzazione di sostanze fuse (ad esempio fumi di
saldatura o di gomma).


Gas means a substance which: (i) at 50 °C has a vapour pressure greater than 300 kPa (absolute); or (ii) is completely gaseous at 20 °C at a standard pressure of 101,3 kPa;

Generated air contaminants - see: Generated substances
Generated substances - generated air contaminants

Substances and air contaminants may be generated from processes at work places, e.g. combustion processes where fumes, exhausts and smoke is emitted and, grinding and cutting processes emitting dust. These generated substances and air contaminants may be dangerous.

Hazardous substance - see ‘Dangerous substance’

A substance which fulfils the criteria relating to physical hazards, health hazards or environmental hazards, laid down in Parts 2 to 5 of Annex I of the CLP Regulation, and classified in relation to the respective hazard classes provided for in that Annex.

The classification of dangerous substances is based on categories defined in the CLP Directive. These categories include physical hazards (explosive, flammable, instable etc.) health hazards (all aspects of short and long term harm to health) and environmental hazards (aquatic environment etc.)

Often hazardous substances and dangerous substances are used like synonyms. There is no clear distinction, language preferences play a role.


Liquid means a substance or mixture which: 
(i) at 50 °C has a vapour pressure of not more than 300 kPa (3 bar);
(ii) is not completely gaseous at 20 °C and at a standard pressure of 101,3 kPa; and 
(iii) which has a melting point or initial melting point of 20 °C or less at a standard  pressure of 101,3 kPa;


‘Mixture’ means a mixture or solution composed of two or more substances.


Solid particles of a substance or mixture suspended in a gas (usually air).

Process generated substances – see: Generated substances

Process-generated contaminants can be generated as emissions from any type of processes leading to exposure at work places, e.g. combustion processes, processes that physically or chemically degrade or otherwise modify the starting material.


Solid means a substance or mixture which does not meet the definitions of liquid or gas (CLP)

Solid is a state of a matter. It is characterized by structural rigidity and resistance to changes of shape or volume.


‘Substance’ means a chemical element and its compounds in the natural state or obtained by any manufacturing process, including any additive necessary to preserve its stability and any impurity deriving from the process used, but excluding any solvent which may be separated without affecting the stability of the substance or changing its composition; Elemento chimico o composto formato da due o più elementi chimici.

Sostanza chimica

Nome comunemente utilizzato per designare elementi
chimici, composti e miscele di composti ed elementi.

Sostanza pericolosa

La classificazione delle sostanze pericolose si basa sulle
categorie definite nella nel regolamento CLP Tali categorie
comprendono i pericoli per la sicurezza (esplosivo,
infiammabile, instabile, ecc.), i pericoli per la salute (tutti
gli aspetti dei danni a breve e lungo termine per la salute) e
i pericoli ambientali (ambiente acquatico, ecc.)

Health and Safety


Carcinogen means a substance or a mixture of substances which induce cancer or increase its incidence.


An explosive substance or mixture is a solid or liquid substance or mixture of substances which is in itself capable by chemical reaction of producing gas at such a temperature and pressure and at such a speed as to cause damage to the surroundings.


Il termine “esposizione” indica che una sostanza è presente nell’ambiente di un lavoratore e può essere inalata o assorbita per contatto con la pelle (compresi gli occhi, le orecchie) o mediante ingestione. Contact of an organism with a chemical, radiological, or physical agent. Exposure is quantified as the amount of the agent available at the exchange boundaries of the organism (e.g. skin, lungs, gut) and available for absorption.


A hazard is anything that has the potential to cause harm. Hazards can affect people, property, processes; they can cause accidents and ill-heath, loss of output, damage to machinery, etc. 


Inspirazione d’aria nelle vie aeree e nei polmoni.


Il regolamento CLP stabilisce una differenziazione tra gas infiammabili, aerosol infiammabili, liquidi infiammabili e solidi infiammabili e applica criteri diversi. Una definizione semplificata è che tutte le sostanze che possono prendere fuoco e bruciare o alimentare l’accensione e la combustione di altri materiali sono classificate come infiammabili.


The taking of food, drugs, liquids, or other substances into the body by mouth. 

Irritanti, della pelle

Skin irritation means the production of reversible damage to the skin following the application of a test substance for up to 4 hours.


A mutation means a permanent change in the amount or structure of the genetic material in a cell. The term ‘mutation’ applies both to heritable genetic changes that may be manifested at the phenotypic level and to the underlying DNA modifications when known (including specific base pair changes and chromosomal translocations).


Occupational risk refers to the likelihood and the severity of an injury or an illness occurring as a result of exposure to a hazard. 


Respiratory sensitiser means a substance that will lead to hypersensitivity of the airways following inhalation of the substance.

Sostanze sensibilizzanti, delle vie respiratorie e della pelle

Respiratory sensitiser means a substance that will lead to hypersensitivity of the airways following inhalation of the substance.

Skin sensitiser means a substance that will lead to an allergic response following skin contact

Tossicità (acuta)

Dal punto di vista giuridico, una sostanza chimica (sostanza,
miscela) presenta tossicità acuta se soddisfa i seguenti criteri
stabiliti dal regolamento CLP:
Acute toxicity means those adverse effects occurring
following oral or dermal administration of a single dose of a
substance or a mixture, or multiple doses given within 24
hours, or an inhalation exposure of 4 hours.
Il regolamento CLP distingue tra tossicità per via orale
(ingestione), tossicità per via cutanea (contatto) e tossicità
per inalazione.

Tossicità (altro)

L’esposizione a sostanze pericolose può causare danni a
organi specifici. Il regolamento CLP stabilisce una
differenziazione dei danni a organi specifici tra danni dovuti
a un’esposizione singola e danni dovuti a esposizioni

Tossicità per la riproduzione

Reproductive toxicity includes adverse effects on sexual function and fertility in adult males and females, as well as developmental toxicity in the offspring.



see: Chemical Agents Directive

Carcinogens and Mutagens Directive

Directive 2004/37/EC (the Carcinogens and Mutagens Directive, CMD) 
of 29 April 2004 on the protection of workers from the risks related to exposure to carcinogens or mutagens at work

Chemical Agents Directive

Directive 98/24/EC (the Chemical Agents Directive, CAD)
of 7 April 1998 on the protection of the health and safety of workers from the risks related to chemical agents at work (fourteenth individual Directive within the meaning of Article 16(1) of Directive 89/391/EEC)

Classification, labelling and packaging plus the abbr. CLP

Regulation (EC) No 1272/2008 (CLP Regulation)
of the European Parliament and of the Council of 16 December 2008 on classification, labelling and packaging of substances and mixtures, amending and repealing Directives 67/548/EEC and 1999/45/EC, and amending Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006


see Carcinogens and Mutagens Directive


see: Globally Harmonised System 

Globally Harmonised System
Occupational Exposure Limit

Directive 2009/161/EU - indicative occupational exposure limit values


see: Occupational Exposure Limit 


see:  Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals

Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals

Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006 (REACH Regulation)
of 18 December 2006 concerning the Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH) and establishing a European Chemicals Agency

Safety Data Sheet

Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006 - REACH


see: Safety Data Sheet

Measures and Procedures

Control Measures – see: Measures

All measures that aim at the reduction of the generation of dangerous substances and the exposure risk.

Dispositivi di produzione individuale più l’abbreviazione DPI

PPE means:

(a) equipment designed and manufactured to be worn or held by a person for protection against one or more risks to that person's health or safety;

(b) interchangeable components for equipment referred to in point (a) which are essential for its protective function;

(c) connexion systems for equipment referred to in point (a) that are not held or worn by a person, that are designed to connect that equipment to an external device or to a reliable anchorage point, that are not designed to be permanently fixed and that do not require fastening works before use;

Hazard pictograms

Hazard pictogram means a graphical composition that includes a symbol plus other graphic elements, such as a border, background pattern or colour that is intended to convey specific information on the hazard concerned;

Indicazione di pericolo

Hazard statement means a phrase assigned to a hazard class and category that describes the nature of the hazards of a hazardous substance or mixture, including, where appropriate, the degree of hazard;

Measurement of air contaminants

Measurement of the concentration of air contaminants at the workplace. Measurements may be used for measuring workers´ exposure or to study the concentration of air contaminants at the workplace, e.g. leakages, identification of sources emitting air contaminants and evaluation of the effectiveness of local exhausts as a basis for decisions about what measures should be taken. Depending on which substance is to be measured, different kinds of measuring equipment are available. 

Misure di controllo

All measures that aim at increasing safety and health. Measures may either reduce the generation of dangerous substances or reduce the risk of exposure. 

Misure organizzative

Tutte le misure volte alla riduzione delle esposizioni a sostanze pericolose mediante interventi sull’organizzazione (ad es. riduzione del numero di lavoratori nelle aree esposte).

Misure tecniche

Tutte le misure volte alla riduzione delle esposizioni a sostanze pericolose mediante l’utilizzo di sussidi di natura tecnica.

Risk Assessment

The aim of occupational risk assessment is to protect workers’ health and safety. Risk assessment includes identifying risks, evaluating how severe the risk is and deciding if there is a need to take action to reduce the risk.
Under health and safety laws, all employers must carry out regular risk assessment.

Safety data sheets (SDS)

SDS provide information about the properties of a chemical product, its hazards, and instructions for handling, disposal and transport, first-aid, fire-fighting and safety measures to reduce exposure. The information in SDS is needed to understand the risks and know how to handle the chemical product safely.


Sostituzione di una sostanza pericolosa o un prodotto chimico o un processo che genera sostanze pericolose con una sostanza, un prodotto o un processo meno pericolosi.