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*The average for the European Union includes data for Croatia although it was not a Member State of the EU at the time of the fieldwork for ESENER-1 in 2009 (Croatia joined the EU on 1 July 2013). Its data have been included for the sake of consistency with the presentation of ESENER-2 data. It should be noted that its inclusion has only a very slight effect on EU figures compared with those that appear in ESENER-1 publications and which correspond to the EU-27