The costs of work-related injuries and illness can be substantial. In the EU-27 in 2007, 5,580 accidents at the workplace resulted in death and 2.9 % of the workforce had an accident at work that resulted in more than three days of absence. Additionally, approximately 23 million people had a health problem caused or made worse by work across a 12-month period. Establishing an accurate overall estimate of the cost to all stakeholders at a national or international level with regard to work-related injuries and illness due to poor or non-occupational safety and health (OSH) is a complex task. However, it is vital that policymakers understand the scope and scale of poor or non-OSH in order to implement effective measures in this policy area.