This article covers any problem that affects muscles, bones or joints and impacts on a person’s ability to work. It may be caused or aggravated by work and then is often called a ‘work-related musculoskeletal disorder (work-related MSD)’. However, there are many problems that affect the muscles, bones or joints that are often long-term and can impact on work or be aggravated by work, but there is not a clear causative link. These are commonly called rheumatic and musculoskeletal diseases (RMDs) or musculoskeletal conditions in health care. In this article, they are referred to as RMDs.